Health and Disease, Uncategorized

COVID 19 – WHAT YOU CAN DO

Covid 19 – What you can do!

Image result for covid 19

Through the work of a lot of autopsies in China, they have learned a lot of what you can do.

 

This virus attacks you airway.  The passage way to your lungs with thick mucous.

 

SAFEQUARDS!

 

  1.  Lots of HOT liquids : coffee, tea, soups, warm water with lemon or salt in it.

Sip warm water or other hot liquid every 20 minutes.  It will push the virus through your digestive track where it will be attacked and killed.

 

2.  Gargle at least once a day!

This gargle is not with Listerine or other commercial gargle solutions.   You gargle only with salt, vinegar or lemon. mixed in warm water.

 

3.  This virus attaches to hair and clothes.

When you come home from being out, immediately go to the bathroom, and take a shower with nice foaming soap, even using Dawn dish washing liquid is the best.  Take clothes and put them in a big plastic bad and take to the laundry room.  Washing immediately is best, along with the towels you just used.

Facial hair also!  If you have facial hair you need to shave, or wash your beard three times a day.  Ladies, you too have facial hairs, although they are very fine.  Please pick up a clean razor and shave your face, especially above your top lip which is the pathway to your respiratory system.

 

4.  This virus also loves metallic surfaces, such as door handles, railings, stoves, refrigerators and such.   It will stay active and grow for 9 days.    Take a bleach solution and spray them down every single day.   Do  not use one cloth or towel, you must use a new towel or cloth on each area.  The best is to spray and do not wipe them down.  Wipe up the excess.

 

5.  Dont Smoke and dont be by anyone who does.  They will be more prone to carry this virus.

 

6.  Wash your hands every 20 minutes, especially if you are working with the public, or in an office setting where there are more than 3 people in an area.   Foaming soap or Dawn dishwashing liquid.

***  Antibacterial soaps, wipes , sprays or rubs are a waste of money.  This is a virus not a bacteria.  The chemicals from this product will absorb into your liver and stay there, and soon you will have problems with that.

 

7.  Eat a lot of vegetables and fruit.  Limit your carbs to one or two serving per day.  This virus grow rapidly on any type of carb, including rice, bread, pasta, potatoes and of course all sweets.  Two serving means, two pieces of bread all day, or 10 french fries.

 

8.   This virus does not transfer from animal to human.

9.  Do all you can not to get the flu this spring.   Do not get the Flu shot.   Dont drink cold drinks.

 

10.  This virus also stays in your throat for 3 days before attacking your respiratory track.  Do all you can to follow these safeguards, and if you are coughing in anyway, read these safeguards again to see if your following them all.

 

We will follow up with supplements you can take, and also what to do if you are getting sick.

 

We are in this Together!

 

-People Start to Heal The Moment They Are Heard-

Health and Wellness Associates

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Michael Roizen

WordPress:  https://healthandwellnessassociates.co/

 

 

 

 

Diets and Weight Loss, Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Are You Drinking Enough During Winter Months?

Health and Wellness Associates

Are You Drinking Enough During Winter Months?

Remembering to drink enough water is easy during the summer, when higher temperatures and outdoor activities drive the point home. But staying adequately hydrated is just as important during the winter.

Environmental humidity plays a role, said Stavros Kavouras, who directs the Hydration Science Lab at Arizona State University in Phoenix. Central heating causes drier interior environments during the winter, which can lead to increased water loss simply from breathing.

That’s not the only challenge. In cold environments, the kidneys actually excrete more urine, said Joseph C. Watso, a postdoctoral research fellow at the Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine in Dallas.

“It’s a small change that could potentially make a difference,” he said. “If you’re not sweating, you might forget to drink adequate water.”

Dehydration sets in when the body loses more water than it takes in.

Even minor dehydration – the level at which people begin feel thirsty – is linked to difficulty concentrating, poor memory and bad moods. And studies have shown people who chronically consume a low amount of water seem to be at higher risk of developing chronic kidney disease, kidney stones and urinary tract infections. “High urine flow seems to be protective,” Kavouras said.

News Picture: AHA News: Are You Drinking Enough During Winter Months?  Kavouras and his colleagues found mild dehydration impaired the function of cells that line blood vessels almost as much as smoking a cigarette. Dehydration also has been linked with inflammation, artery stiffness, blood pressure regulation and other factors that can raise the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Research also has linked poor hydration to diabetes. “Diabetes is a lifestyle disease that’s associated with what we eat, what we drink and how physically active we are,” Kavouras said. “Hydration seems to be part of this recipe.”

Exactly how much water people need can vary.

“Our water needs change from day to day based on factors such as environmental temperature and activity level,” Kavouras said. “If you are an Ironman athlete who trains four hours per day, your water needs are higher than somebody who is sedentary.”

In general, the federal Institute of Medicine suggests women take in 2.7 liters and men 3.7 liters of water per day. That might sound like a lot, but because food contributes about 20% of the daily water total, women should drink 8, 8-ounce glasses and men 12, 8-ounce glasses.

“It’s underappreciated that many fruits and vegetables are 90 to 95% water,” Watso said. “Eating more fruits and vegetables can certainly help you stay hydrated.” Soup, an old winter standby, also counts. “Just be sure to avoid soups with very high amounts of sodium.”

Watso recommends people keep a refillable water bottle with them and sip on it all day. “Your body can only process water at a certain rate, and if you drink too much too (quickly), the excess will be excreted,” he said.

Experts say fluid from tea and coffee – even that eggnog latte – counts toward hydration. Even soda and juices technically contribute to one’s daily fluid intake, although experts do not recommend them because of their high sugar content. Alcohol, however, doesn’t make the cut.

Kavouras advised people to pay attention to how often they use the bathroom. Adults should urinate six or seven times per day. Dark yellow or orangish urine is a sign to drink up.

“Drinking water throughout the day is one of the most effective things you can do to improve health and well-being.”

We are in this together!
-People Start to Heal The Moment They Are Heard-

Health and Wellness Associates

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Rx to Wellness, Uncategorized

Obesity Might Skew Blood Tests in Kids

Health and Wellness Associates

 

Obesity Might Skew Blood Tests in Kids

 

News Picture: Obesity Might Skew Blood Tests in KidsIf your child is obese, new research suggests that those extra pounds can alter the results of routine blood tests.

“We performed the first comprehensive analysis of the effect of obesity on routine blood tests in a large community population of children and found that almost 70% of the blood tests studied were affected,” said study first author Victoria Higgins, from the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto and the University of Toronto.

Higgins’ team looked at more than 1,300 healthy children and teens in and around Toronto and found that obesity affected 24 routine blood tests, including those for liver function, inflammation markers, lipids and iron.

The study was published Dec. 17 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

“As clinical decisions are often guided by normative ranges based on a large healthy population, understanding how and which routine blood tests are affected by obesity is important to correctly interpret blood test results,” Higgins explained in a journal news release.

It’s unclear if obesity’s impact on blood tests are a sign of early disease, but doctors should be aware of these findings when interpreting several types of blood tests in children, the researchers advised.

“We hope our study results will assist pediatricians and family physicians to better assess children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight or obesity,” Higgins said.

There’s been a sharp rise in overweight and obesity among U.S. youngsters in the past three decades, and the childhood obesity rate is now about 18.5%.

— Robert Preidt

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Foods, Uncategorized

Pasta e Fagioli

Pasta e Fagioli

This under 30-minute Olive Garden Copy Cat Pasta Fagioli Recipe is amazing. A delicious and hearty soup recipe made with meat, pasta, and vegetables! #valentinascorner #soup #pastafagioli #fagioli #recipe #copycat

This traditional pasta and white bean soup is an Italian classic that makes a wonderful supper!

Be sure to cook the pasta until just al dente, keeping it a bit chewy or “toothsome.” It makes a wonderful supper when served with a large tossed salad of romaine lettuce with red peppers, olives and sliced cucumbers and a dessert of plump dried fruit and roasted almonds.

Food as Medicine

Like all legumes, white beans are high in dietary fiber, with almost 50 percent of the Daily Value in just one cup. Soluble fiber binds with cholesterol-containing bile and escorts it out of the body. A global study of 16,000 middle-aged men found those who consumed the most legumes reduced their risk of heart disease by 82 percent. This recipe is also beneficial for blood sugar control: a substance in onions known as allyl propyl disulfide has been shown to lower blood glucose levels.

Ingredients

1 cup dried or canned small white or red  beans

1 pound of hamburger, optional
1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil
1 large onion, chopped
6 cloves garlic, minced
10 cups water or vegetable stock
1/2 teaspoon dried rosemary, crushed
1 cup small pasta, such as orzo or small shells
Salt and black pepper to taste
2 tablespoons fresh parsley, chopped
1 cup freshly grated Parmesan cheese
Additional extra-virgin olive oil (optional)

I add a large can of crushed tomatoes, and oregano

Instructions

  1. Wash the beans. In a large pot, cover them with cold water. Soak for 8 hours. Drain into a colander.
  2. In the same pot, heat 1 tablespoon of olive oil over medium heat, add the onion and garlic, and sauté until soft.
  3. Add the beans and water or stock. Cover and bring to a boil over high heat.
  4. Reduce heat to low, add the rosemary, and simmer 2 hours or until the beans are tender.
  5. Raise heat to high, add the pasta, and cook until al dente.
  6. Season the soup to taste with salt and pepper, garnish with the chopped parsley.
  7. Serve accompanied by grated Parmesan cheese and the optional drizzle of extra-virgin olive oil.

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Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Stroke: Know These 6 Signs And Take Action

 

Signs of A Stroke

 

Knowing the signs of stroke is crucial, as prompt treatment is necessary to help reduce the damage that can be caused by sudden interruption of the brain’s blood supply. Be aware of these classic stroke symptoms:

  1. Sudden loss of vision in one or both eyes
  2. Weakness or numbness on one side of the body, including the face
  3. Difficulty speaking
  4. Sudden disorientation, confusion or memory loss
  5. Dizziness, loss of balance or loss of coordination
  6. Severe headache that comes on suddenly with no apparent cause

Stroke is an emergency medical condition that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is cut off. Without blood intake, brain cells will die. This can cause a series of fatal complications, from permanent paralysis to death. There are more than one type of stroke. The most common are ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. #ischemicstroke #hemorrhagicstroke #stroke #healthThe American Stroke Association suggests that anyone can identify a person having a stroke by checking for the signs of facial weakness, arm weakness and speech problems. As a bystander, you can help to determine if someone is having a stroke by asking them to perform three simple actions:

  1. Ask the person to smile
  2. Ask the person to raise both arms above his or her head
  3. Ask the person to speak a simple sentence

If the person has any problems completing any of these steps, call 911 immediately, noting the exact time of onset if possible and describe the symptoms.

 

We are in this together!

 

-People Start to Heal The Moment They Are Heard-
Health and Wellness Associates
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Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Could MS Have Links to the Herpes Virus?

Could MS Have Links to the Herpes Virus?

 

A variant of a common herpes virus may play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), Swedish researchers say.

They analyzed the blood of about 8,700 MS patients and a control group of more than 7,200 people without MS. They were looking for antibodies against proteins of two variants (A and B) of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), which has been linked with MS.

MS patients were 55% more likely to have antibodies against the HHV-6A protein than the control group.

The researchers also looked a sub-group of almost 500 people who did not have MS. The risk of developing MS more than doubled for those who’d had a HHV-6A infection. The younger they were when the virus was found in their blood, the greater their future MS risk.

The findings suggest that HHV-6A may play a role in the development of MS, according to the authors of the study published Nov. 26 in the journal Frontiers in Immunology.

News Picture: Could MS Have Links to the Herpes Virus?MS is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, causing weakness, movement problems and tremors. Its cause is unclear, but one theory is that a virus tricks the immune system to attack the body’s own tissue.

Though previous research linked HHV-6 with MS, it couldn’t distinguish between the 6A and 6B variants. Researchers in this new study were able to do that.

“This is a big breakthrough for both the MS and herpes virus research,” said study co-senior author Anna Fogdell-Hahn, an associate professor of clinical neuroscience at Karolinska Institute in Stockholm.

“For one, it supports the theory that HHV-6A could be a contributing factor to the development of MS,” Fogdell-Hahn said in an institute news release. “On top of that, we are now able, with this new method, to find out how common these two different types of HHV-6 are, something we haven’t been able to do previously.”

It’s believed that as many as 80% of children are infected with the HHV-6 virus before they’re 2 years old, and many have antibodies against it for the rest of their lives.

“Both HHV-6A and 6B can infect our brain cells, but they do it in slightly different ways. Therefore, it is now interesting to go forward and attempt to map out exactly how the viruses could affect the onset of MS,” Fogdell-Hahn said.

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Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Balanitis (Inflammation of the Head of the Penis)

Balanitis (Inflammation of the Head of the Penis)

 

What is balanitis (inflammation of the head of penis)?

Balanitis treatment depends on the underlying cause.
Balanitis treatment depends on the underlying cause.

Balanitis is an inflammation of the skin of the head of penis (glans penis). If the foreskin is involved as well, it is referred to as balanoposthitis.

What are the signs and symptoms of balanitis? Is it painful?

Usually, most common signs and symptoms of balanitis are:

  1. Redness or mild swelling
  2. Iitching
  3. Rash
  4. Irritation or pain on or around the penis

An odorous discharge can accompany these symptoms.

What causes balanitis?

 

  • Balanitis is usually found in uncircumcised males. Poor hygiene can contribute when the area under the foreskin is not washed regularly and bacteria, skin, and sweat accumulate. Some underlying medical conditions can also increase the risk of balanitis, especially diabetes mellitus.
  • Allergies to certain chemicals can cause an allergic balanitis. This could be chemicals in soaps or other products in touch with the glans of the penis.
  • Certain infections (especially yeast infections) can cause a balanitis. Reactive arthritis (formerly Reiter syndrome) is associated with inflammation around the head of the penis (circinate balanitis).
  • Balanitis is not a sexually transmitted disease (STD); however, it can have similar symptoms (for example, itching and redness).
is balanitis contagious, balanitis causes, men's health

Is Balanitis Contagious?

It may depend on the causes

Balanitis, also referred to as inflammation of the head of an uncircumcised penis, may or may not be contagious if it’s caused by:

  1. Bacteria
  2. Viruses
  3. Fungus
  4. Skin irritants

 

How is balanitis diagnosed?

A health care professional will usually be able to diagnose balanitis based on asking the patient questions (history) and physical examination. No additional tests are usually necessary. If a doctor suspects that the balanitis is caused by an underlying medical condition, the patient might require blood tests.

 

Which medications treat balanitis?

 

 

First, the underlying cause is determined and the treatment directed against the reason for the condition. If there is an infection, the appropriate antifungal medication can be used. If it is a hygiene issue, daily habits are changed. Young boys may require instruction on how to retract and clean their foreskin.

The optimal medications will depend on the underlying cause of the balanitis. For examples, doctors will prescribe a topical antifungal cream if Candida infection is present, or an antibiotic if a cellulitis is suspected. In refractory or repeated situations, the doctor might suggest circumcision as a possible way to prevent further infections by eliminating the overlying foreskin.

 

Which home remedies or OTC medications soothe pain and treat balanitis?

 

Switching soaps or other possible offending irritants can be helpful. Other times, the doctor will prescribe oral or topical medications.

 

What is the prognosis for balanitis? Can it be cured?

The prognosis of balanitis is generally good.

 

Can balanitis be prevented?

The risk of balanitis can be reduced with proper hygiene, but not all balanitis can be prevented depending on the underlying cause. Circumcision has been advocated as a way of preventing or reducing the risk of balanitis in patients who had multiple episodes.

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Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Pinched Nerve (Symptoms, Locations, Causes, Treatment, and Prognosis)

Pinched Nerve (Symptoms, Locations, Causes, Treatment, and Prognosis)

 

What is a pinched nerve?

A doctor points to an anatomic model of the spine and spinal nerves.

A “pinched nerve” is the name given to the uncomfortable sensation, pain, or numbness caused when increased pressure leads to irritation or damage to a peripheral nerve. (A peripheral nerve is one that is outside the brain and spinal cord.) Although this condition is often associated with back pain or a neck injury, almost any nerve is susceptible.

What are the signs and symptoms of a pinched nerve?

 

A young woman suffering from carpal tunnel holds her wrist in pain.The most common pinched nerve symptom is a tingling sensation, which can be accompanied by some numbness. This may initially come and go, but over time becomes persistent. Pain may accompany the tingling sensation and is often described as being “sharp” or “electrical.” Some patients experience a burning sensation in the affected area.

In severe cases, muscle weakness may occur because the nerve that controls the muscle has been irritated. If present and not identified and corrected, those muscles may decrease in size and function.

Common areas where nerves are pinched include the following:

  • carpal tunnel (where the median nerve at the wrist is injured)
    • ulnar nerve at the elbow (frequently caused by leaning on elbows while sitting or driving)
    • lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (This is also known as meralgia paresthetica, caused by compression of the sensory nerve leading to the upper thigh. This may also be seen in pregnancy, when the enlarging uterus can also cause nerve compression.)
    • common peroneal nerve injury (associated with crossing the legs at the knee)
    • sciatic nerve problems or sciatica, pain which travels from the low back into the leg (This is frequently used to label the symptoms associated with a pinched nerve in the low back or lumbar spine. Patients with this condition describe pain which travels from the back into a leg or hip.)
    • cervical spine (A pinched nerve in the neck can cause pain or tingling in the spine to travel into the arm or shoulder blade region.)
  • Of note, although tennis elbow is a painful condition often associated with repetitive activities, the pain is caused by inflammation of the tendons of the elbow, not a pinched nerve.

What causes a pinched nerve?

 

An illustration of a pinched spinal nerve.Pressure on a peripheral nerve can irritate the nerve itself, its protective covering (myelin sheath), or both. When this occurs, the nerve is unable to conduct sensory impulses to the brain appropriately, leading to a sense of numbness. This inflammation associated with the damage or injury can also cause pain or paresthesia (a tingling or prickling sensation) signals to be sent to the brain. In its early stages, many people may describe this sensation as a body part that has “fallen asleep.” However, if nerve inflammation persists, this sensation persists rather than resolving after a few minutes.

If the nerve is compressed for a short amount of time, it is often able to repair itself but it may take several weeks or months for the symptoms to fully resolve. However, if the compression remains present for a longtime, permanent nerve injury may occur.

What are the risk factors for a pinched nerve?

A male worker with poor sitting posture works on his computer at his desk.Anything which increases pressure around a nerve can cause a pinched nerve. Common causes include body position such as leaning on elbows, habitually crossing legs, or poor posture. Over time this may lead to pressure injury to nerves in these regions.

  • Disc herniation or bulging discs and arthritis in the spine can cause pressure on nerve roots which leads to the nerve pain or discomfort associated with a pinched nerve.
  • Weight gain or water retention can predispose people to developing pinched nerves; thyroid disease (especially hypothyroidism, or low thyroid hormone levels) can contribute to both water retention and weight gain and can increase the risk of certain types of pinched nerves.
  • Pregnancy, which is associated with increased weight and occasionally associated with water retention, is also a common risk factor for developing certain types of pinched nerves.
  • Repetitive activities (typing and using certain tools) can also increase swelling around specific nerves and lead to symptoms of a pinched nerve.

What tests diagnose a pinched nerve?

 

A doctor conducts an EMG (electromyography) nerve study on a patient's wrist.The health care professional often makes the diagnosis of pinched nerve by taking a history of symptoms and performing a careful physical examination. Depending on the findings, the diagnosis may be made clinically or further testing may be required.

Electromyography (EMG) is a nerve conduction study to help confirm the diagnosis of a pinched nerve and to determine the extent of nerve damage.

If the pinched nerve is in the neck (cervical spine) or back (lumbar spine), an MRI or CT scan may be considered to make the diagnosis and look for the cause (herniated disc, arthritis, or fracture).

What are pinched nerve treatment options and home remedies?

A physical therapist works on the neck and shoulder of a patient with a pinched nerve.The treatment of a pinched nerve depends upon the location and the cause. Resting the affected area is often very effective, especially in cases of injury caused by repetitive activities. Physical therapy is frequently beneficial when a pinched spinal nerve is caused by problems in the neck or low back. Exercises may strengthen the back or core muscles and decrease or eliminate pressure on a nerve root. Over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen and naproxen may be helpful. Injections of corticosteroids (an anti-inflammatory medication) may also be beneficial for many types of pinched nerves.

For cases of carpal tunnel syndrome, splinting or bracing the wrist is often used. In cases of ulnar neuropathy or common peroneal neuropathy, learning to change body positions may be required to achieve the best outcome.

Weight loss can be of benefit for many types of pinched nerves.

Surgery may be required to release pressure on the nerve if it fails to respond to medication, splinting, physical therapy, or injections. The specific type of surgery depends upon the nerve involved. However, the goal of the surgery is the same, to eliminate or relieve the pressure on the affected nerve.

 

Can a pinched nerve go away without treatment? Can nerve damage be permanent?

In many cases, once a pinched nerve has been identified, the symptoms can be resolved when treatment allows the nerve to recover. There are instances where the nerve damage is permanent, and a patient may be left with permanent numbness or pain in the affected area. Many patients fall in between. Because nerves can regenerate (regrow) very slowly over time, it’s important to seek evaluation for symptoms which persist or recur over a number of days or weeks.

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Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Could Mammograms Screen for Heart Disease?

Could Mammograms Screen for Heart Disease?

 

By screening for breast cancer, mammography has helped save hundreds of thousands of lives. Using the test to also screen for heart disease might someday help save many thousands more.

Though expert guidelines vary, generally women are advised to have a mammogram every year or two starting at age 40 or 50. Nearly 40 million mammograms have been performed in the U.S. during the past year, government figures show.

The prospect of leveraging a test that already is so widely administered, without additional cost or radiation exposure, is tantalizing to researchers hoping to find a new way to fight heart disease, the No. 1 cause of death among U.S. women.

Besides revealing masses that may be tumors, digital mammography – a technique in which low-dose X-ray images are captured and enhanced using computer technology – can reveal buildup of calcium in the arteries in the breast. About 13% of women are estimated to have this buildup, called breast arterial calcification, or BAC, including about 10% of women in their 40s and around half of women in their 80s.

Early studies so far have found BAC’s presence appears to signal an elevated risk for heart attack, stroke and other cardiovascular consequences. Research has begun to reveal a link between calcium buildup in the breast and coronary artery calcification, an established measure that helps predict cardiovascular disease risk.

“Mammography has the potential to alter the course of two leading causes of death in women, breast cancer and heart disease,” said Dr. Quan Minh Bui, general cardiology fellow at the University of California, San Diego. “We believe that there is truth to the sentiment that ‘a picture is worth a thousand words,’ and that seeing calcifications in the breast arteries may empower patients to participate in their medical care.”

Last month at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions conference, Bui and his UCSD colleagues presented preliminary research examining the utility of BAC in predicting existing or future heart failure, a condition in which the heart is weakened and doesn’t pump properly.

The study looked at records from 2006-2016 for 278 middle-aged and older women who had both a mammogram and coronary calcium test within a one-year window.

Almost one-third of the women had BAC, and 7% had heart failure. Even after accounting for age, diabetes and high blood pressure, all heart failure risk factors, women with calcium buildup in the breast arteries had 2.2 times the odds of having or developing heart failure.

Heart failure is a particular challenge in women, said Dr. Erin Michos, director of women’s cardiovascular health for Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore. An estimated 3.6 million U.S. women have the condition, and more than 40,000 women die of it annually.

Compared with men, Michos said, women with heart failure tend to be older and have more symptoms such as shortness of breath.

They also have stiffer hearts but normal ejection fraction, a measure of pumping ability. Effective treatments for this type of heart failure are lacking.

“That’s why preventing heart failure from developing in the first place is so important, by identifying at-risk individuals and applying appropriate lifestyle and pharmacology strategies,” she said.

While a mammography finding of breast artery calcification should prompt women to pursue better heart health, it’s still unclear what doctors should do about it, Michos said. For instance, she asked, should those patients be given cholesterol-lowering statins?

It may turn out that BAC is better at predicting some conditions than others. It occurs in a different layer of the blood vessels than coronary artery calcium and may be more closely linked to hypertension and vessel stiffening – major risk factors for heart failure, Michos said. By contrast, “coronary artery calcium likely captures lifetime exposure to risk factors that are key for formation of coronary (plaques), such as high levels of LDL cholesterol.”

Bui’s team is reviewing additional mammograms from women diagnosed with cardiovascular conditions related to arterial plaque buildup, such as coronary artery disease. That effort may help fuel future studies to track breast artery calcium findings and heart health in real time, he said.

Meanwhile, the California researchers hope mammography reports will start to include more information about breast artery calcium.

“Incidental calcification is reported on other diagnostic studies such as CT scans, and we envision BAC not being any different,” Bui said. “We suggest that reports include a statement in fine print noting an association of BAC with cardiovascular disease.”

 

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Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Early Signs in Young Children of Autism

Early Signs and Symptoms of Autism

 

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that affects a person’s behavior and impairs the ability to communicate and interact with others. Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder can range from mild to severe. The cause is unknown.

Autism spectrum disorder refers to several conditions that used to be diagnosed separately, including:

  • Autistic disorder
  • Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)
  • Asperger syndrome

What are the early signs and symptoms of autism in infants and babies?

 

Some children may show symptoms of autism disorder in infancy, but many do not show any signs until 24 months of age (2 years) or later. Some signs and symptoms that an infant or baby may have an autism spectrum disorder include:

  • Lack of eye contact
  • Not responding to his or her name or to familiar voices
  • No back-and-forth gestures, such as reaching, pointing, waving, or showing
  • Does not make noises to get attention
  • Does not initiate cuddling or respond to attempts to do so
  • Absence of visually following objects or gestures
  • Does not imitate facial expressions or movements
  • Lack of interest in playing with other children
  • Does not share interest or enjoyment in activities
  • Seems not to notice if others experience pain or discomfort

In addition to the common symptoms that infants with autism may exhibit, some developmental red flags may also indicate autism spectrum disorder in infants such as a lack of smiles or other joyful expressions by 6 months of age, and no back-and-forth sharing of smiles, facial expressions, or sounds by 9 months of age.

What Causes Autism?

Autism is recognized as a set of a wide variety of signs and symptoms, and may have many causes. Autism is caused by, for example:

  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Fragile X syndrome (inherited disorder)
  • Cerebral digenesis (abnormal development of the brain)
  • Rett syndrome (a mutation of a single gene)
  • Some of the inborn errors of metabolism (biochemical defects)
  • Strong association between:
  • Autism and seizures
  • Autism and Landau-Kleffner syndrome
  • Acquired epileptic aphasia

What are the early signs and symptoms of autism in toddlers?

A toddler is a child age 12 to 36 months (1 to 3 years), and often this age is when parents start noticing the first signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Studies have shown up to half of parents of children with autism noticed signs before their child’s first birthday, and almost 80%-90% noted symptoms by 24 months.

In addition to the symptoms that infants with autism may exhibit, some developmental red flags that may indicate autism spectrum disorder in toddlers by 12 months old include:

  • Not responding to their name
  • Lack of babbling or “baby talk”
  • Absence of back-and-forth gestures, such as reaching, pointing, waving, or showing

By 16 months, a red flag that a toddler may have an autism spectrum disorder is a lack of spoken words, and by 24 months, an absence of meaningful two-word phrases that don’t involve imitating or repeating may be noticed.

 

What are the early signs and symptoms of autism in older children and teens?

 

For older children and teenagers, signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders usually involve problems with speech and language, impaired social skills, non-verbal communication difficulties, and inflexible behavior. Symptoms may range from mild to severe. Some children may be severely disabled by symptoms, while others may be high-functioning.

Signs of speech and language difficulties include:

  • Starts talking later than other children
  • Problems communicating needs
  • Lack of understanding of simple questions or directions
  • Takes things literally (does not understand humor, sarcasm, or irony)
  • Speaks in an unusual tone of voice, or with a strange cadence
  • Repeats words and phrases over and over
  • Repeats, rather than responds to, questions
  • Does not use language correctly
  • Refers to him- or herself in the third person

Signs of social communication problems include:

  • Seems aloof and detached from others
  • Difficulty connecting with others and making friends
  • Seems disinterested or unaware of what is going on around them
  • Does not like to be touched, cuddled, or held
  • Difficulty playing “pretend” or using toys creatively
  • Doesn’t share with others
  • Doesn’t seem aware when others are speaking to them
  • Difficulty understanding or expressing feelings
  • Have trouble maintaining a conversation
  • Talk a lot about a specific topic but have difficulty talking about a range of topics
  • Find it hard to follow instructions with a lot of steps

Signs of nonverbal communication difficulties include:

  • Difficulty picking up on subtle nonverbal cues from others (facial expressions, gestures, tone of voice)
  • Avoidance of eye contact or unusual or inappropriate eye contact
  • Facial expressions do not match what is being said
  • Rarely makes gestures and may seem cold or robotic
  • Has abnormal posture or eccentric ways of moving
  • May be overly sensitive to sights, smells, textures, and sounds

Signs of inflexibility include:

  • Insistence on a rigid routine
  • Has problems adapting to changes in schedule or environment
  • Forms unusual attachments to strange objects (such as keys or light switches)
  • May obsessively line up or arrange objects in a particular order
  • Becomes preoccupied with one narrow topic of interest, often that involves symbols or numbers such as train schedules or sports statistics
  • Spends long periods watching moving objects or focusing on one part of an object
  • Repetitive movements (called self-stimulatory behavior, or “stimming” – believed to soothe children with autism):
  • Hand flapping
  • Rocking
  • Twirling
  • Head banging
  • Staring
  • Snapping fingers
  • Flicking light switches on and off
  • Scratching

 

Are the early signs and symptoms of autism the same for girls and boys?

There are some differences between girls and boys with autism. Not every child shows (or does not show) certain behaviors, and certain aspects of behavior and interaction are more common in one gender versus another.

Girls with autism

  • Tend to have at least one close friend – more sociable
  • Are not demanding
  • Auditory hallucinations (hears things others can’t)
  • Speaks her mind
  • Can hide feelings
  • Shows some affection
  • Speaks on time and few problems with speech
  • Speaks in high pitch
  • Apologizes a lot (sometimes to excess)

Boys with autism

  • Often have no friends – more reclusive
  • Are very demanding
  • Typically no auditory hallucinations
  • Does not speak his mind
  • Show emotions
  • Indifferent
  • Speaks late and has speech impairment
  • Monotone speech
  • Rarely, if ever, apologizes – doesn’t seem to care

 

What are the early signs and symptoms of autism in adults?

 

In adults, signs and symptoms of autism are similar to those in older children and teens, including:

  • Difficulty understanding what others think and feel, lack of empathy for others
  • Anxiety in social situations
  • Difficulty making friends or maintaining romantic relationships
  • Preferring to be alone
  • Coming across as rude or disinterested without meaning to be
  • Problems with nonverbal communication (difficulty maintaining eye contact, interpreting facial expressions, or using gestures)
  • Difficulty expressing feelings
  • Trouble maintaining conversations
  • Takings things literally (difficulty understanding humor, sarcasm, or irony)
  • Sticking to a strict routine and getting anxious if anything changes
  • Not understanding social “rules”
  • Avoiding eye contact or showing inappropriate eye contact
  • Invades personal space, or gets upset if others come too close to them
  • Preoccupations or hyper-focus on certain subjects or activities
  • Repetitive behaviors
  • Anxiety and sleep problems
  • Temper control issues
  • Depression

Autism may be different in women and men. It may be harder to tell if a woman is autistic. Women with autism may hide their feelings, may be quieter, and may appear to handle social situations more easily.

On the positive side, adults with autism may excel at a particular skill, have an abundance of knowledge in one specific area, or have an exceptional memory.

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