Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Bi-polar of Shizophrenic

bipolar

What are signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder and of schizophrenia?

 

To qualify for the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, a person must experience at least one manic episode. Symptoms of mania include

 

elevated, expansive, or irritable mood;

racing thoughts;

pressured speech (rapid, excessive, and frenzied speaking);

decreased need for sleep;

grandiose ideas (for example, false beliefs of superiority or failures);

tangential speech (repeatedly changing topics to topics that are hardly related);

restlessness/increased goal-directed activity; and

impulsivity, poor judgment, or engaging in risky activity (like spending sprees, promiscuity, or excess desire for sex).

While a major depressive episode is not required for the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, depression often alternates with manic episodes and tends to occur more often than mania in many people.

 

Symptoms of schizophrenia may include

 

delusions (beliefs not at all based in reality),

hallucinations (seeing, hearing, feeling, smelling, or tasting something that is not really there),

catatonia,

negative symptoms, like not talking (mutism, low motivation, and movement), and

disorganized speech or behavior.

 

What tests do health care professionals use to diagnose bipolar disorder and schizophrenia?

Since there is no one test that determines that someone has bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, health care professionals diagnose these conditions by gathering medical, family, and mental health information. The mental health professional will also either perform a physical examination or request that the individual’s primary care doctor do so, including lab tests to assess the person’s general health and whether he or she has mental health symptoms that are due to a physical condition.

 

 

What are treatments and medications for bipolar disorder and for schizophrenia?

 

People with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia can expect their mental health professionals to consider several interventions, including medications, psychotherapies, and lifestyle advice. Medication treatment of bipolar disorder tends to address relieving already existing symptoms of the illness and preventing symptoms from returning. For schizophrenia, medications have been found to be effective in treating the positive symptoms (for example, delusions or hallucinations).

 

Antipsychotic medications that treat the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and the manic and mixed symptoms of bipolar disorder include olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel), ziprasidone (Geodon), aripiprazole (Abilify), paliperidone (Invega), asenapine (Saphris), iloperidone (Fanapt), lurasidone (Latuda), and brexpiprazole (Rexulti). Older medications, like haloperidol (Haldol), chlorpromazine (Thorazine), and thioridazine (Mellaril), are more likely to cause muscular side effects, rarely one that can be permanent.

 

Mood stabilizers like lithium (Lithobid) and antiseizure (anticonvulsant) medications like divalproex (Depakote), carbamazepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR), and lamotrigine (Lamictal) treat active manic or mixed symptoms and those symptoms from returning. Antidepressants are the primary medical treatment for the depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder. Antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications like fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), vortioxetine (Trintellix), and vilazodone (Viibryd); serotonergic/adrenergic medications (SNRIs) like venlafaxine (Effexor), duloxetine (Cymbalta), desvenlafaxine (Pristiq), and levomilnacipran (Fetzima), as well as bupropion (Wellbutrin), a dopaminergic antidepressant.

 

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can treat people whose symptoms of bipolar disorder or schizophrenia are severe and have inadequately responded to psychotherapies and a number of medication trials. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can treat resistant depression, as well.

 

Talk therapy (psychotherapy) is an important part of helping individuals living with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia achieve the highest level of functioning possible by improving ways of coping with the illness. Assertive community treatment (ACT) involves members of the treatment team having daily meetings with the schizophrenia sufferer in community settings (for example, at home, work, or otherwise in the community) rather than just in an office or hospital.

 

What is the prognosis of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia?

Bipolar disorder sufferers tend to have mood problems up to 60% of the time but can be helped with psychotherapy and medication. Schizophrenia has a more difficult course, less so with treatment. People with either condition are at risk for developing medical problems, other mental health disorders, taking their own life, or otherwise dying younger.

 

 

 

 

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Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Heart Attacks in Men

heartattackmen

 Heart Attacks in Men

 

Pain, discomfort, and pressure in the chest are the most common symptoms of heart attack in men. These can include a sensation of fullness or squeezing in the chest. These symptoms are sometimes accompanied by pain in one or both arms, the jaw, back, stomach, or neck. While women are more likely than men to experience symptoms other than the characteristic chest pain and pressure, men can also experience other types of symptoms or mistake a heart attack for another condition, such as gastroesophageal reflux. Other signs and symptoms of heart attack include

shortness of breath,

nausea,

vomiting,

fatigue,

lightheadedness,

fainting,

dizziness,

pressure in the upper back, and

a feeling of breaking out in a cold sweat.

Causes of heart attacks in men

 

Heart attacks are caused when there is an inadequate supply of oxygen-carrying blood to the muscle of the heart. A heart attack is medically known as a myocardial infarction. Blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot and/or atherosclerotic plaque (from coronary artery disease) is the most common cause for the interruption in blood flow to the heart muscle.

 

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Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms and Signs

pancreaticcancer

Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms & Signs

 

Pancreatic Cancer typically does not cause symptoms until it has grown, so it is most frequently diagnosed in advanced stages rather than early in the course of the disease. In some cases, jaundice (a yellowish discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes) without pain can be an early sign of pancreatic cancer. Other symptoms and signs that can occur with more advanced disease are

 

nausea,

vomiting,

weight loss,

itching skin, and

decreased or loss of appetite.

Pale stools, upper abdominal pain that radiates to the back, back pain, abdominal pain, dark urine, abdominal bloating, diarrhea, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck can be present as well. In some cases, a new onset of diabetes may be a sign of pancreatic cancer, but the vast majority of cases of diabetes are not related to cancer.

 

Causes of pancreatic cancer

 

The exact cause of pancreatic cancer is generally unknown.

 

Rarely, there can be familial or hereditary genetic syndromes that run in families and put individuals at higher risk, such as mutations of the genes BRCA-2 and, to a lesser extent, BRCA-1.

 

Other causes are actually various modes of medication used for diabetes.   Canagliflozin(Invokana), Dapagliflozin (Farxiga) and Empagliflozin (Jardiance) are three medications that were released to the public without a correct length of time to study them, and they are showing to have some positive results for inducing pancreatic cancer.

 

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Health and Disease, Lifestyle

Skin Cancer Signs

skincancer

Skin Cancer Signs Not Clear To Three-Quarters Of People, Threatening Healthy Practices

The most common form of cancer in the United States may also be one of the least obvious to spot. New research from British Association of Dermatologists (BAD) finds that 77 percent of people do not feel confident in their abilities to recognize melanomas of the skin, despite 72 percent admitting to getting sunburned in the last year.

In 2011, the latest year data are available, some 66,000 Americans were diagnosed with melanomas of the skin and more than 9,000 people died. The majority of both cases were men, who are about twice as likely to suffer from skin cancer and die from it as women. Experts fear many of the cases could be due to ignorance over the disease’s risks, particularly as people fail to spot the warning signs early enough.

“This is a reflection of poor sun protection habits,” said Johnathon Major of BAD. “People underestimate the damage that sunburn can do to their skin, and many think that skin reddening is just a harmless part of the tanning process, rather than a sure sign that you have damaged your skin irreparably.”

In addition to checking for new lesions that itch, scab, and bleed for at least four weeks, health officials use the ABCD rule of thumb for checking suspicious spots:

  • Asymmetry: each half may be a different size or shape
  • Border: edges of the area may be irregular or blurred, and sometimes show notches
  • Color: may be uneven with different shades of black, brown, or pink
  • Diameter: at least 6mm in diameter

Not all skin cancers appear as melanomas, however. People should take care to look out for other signs, such as new patches of scaly, crusty, and inflamed skin or “a growth with a pearly rim surrounding a central crater, a bit like an upturned volcano,” the BAD reports.

How To Prevent

Warnings to use sunscreen are nothing new — most people are well aware of the dangers posed by ultraviolet rays, said Charlotte Proby, professor of dermatology at Ninewells Hospital and Medical School. “However, this has yet to translate into a culture of sun protection and skin checking which would do a lot to curb the incidence and deaths from this disease.”

Please also note that lathering up with sun screen more than once every 6 hours can lead to other major complications and diseases. No, you do not need to put sunscreen on your children everytime they go in and out of the water. Once every 6 hours.

The Skin Cancer Foundation recommends monthly head-to-toe screenings for any new or changing lesions on the skin. In their survey of 1,018 people in 2014, however, BAD researchers found only four percent of people abide by the guideline and 40 percent never check their skin at all.

Checking for abnormalities isn’t the only strategy for avoiding life-threatening skin cancer, Rokhsar points out. While most people know sunscreen can offer protection, they may not know how much to apply and how often. UV rays can damage the skin in as little as 15 minutes, even on cloudy days. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends applying a broad spectrum sunblock — meaning one that covers both UVA and UVB rays — of at least SPF 15 every two hours or after swimming, sweating, or toweling off.

“As summer comes around again,” Proby said, “we want people to consider the message that you can enjoy the warm weather whilst staying safe.”

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