Health and Disease

HWA – DEPRESSION

How are you feeling today? If you’ve found yourself reading this, probably pretty crappy. Maybe you’ve been feeling listless and down for a lot longer than you expected, and it’s making you worry that you might have depression. Maybe you’ve just received a diagnosis of clinical depression and you’re looking for answers. We get it.  But we won’t let depression swallow you up. 

What Is Depression, Really?

 It’s normal to experience sadness. (Who didn’t cry when Simba couldn’t wake up Mufasa?) But unlike typical sadness or grief, time can’t and won’t heal Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), the term for clinical depression, which most people just call “depression.” It’s a common mental health condition that shows up like an unwanted houseguest and refuses to leave. This extended period of sadness or emptiness comes with a constellation of other symptoms, like exhaustion, sleep trouble, a shrinking appetite, overeating, sudden crying spells, and sometimes thoughts of suicide. Symptoms range in severity and must last for two weeks or more to receive an MDD diagnosis, though it’s rare than an episode would only last for that short time. Most people have symptoms for six months to a year, and sometimes, they can last for years.

Without treatment, depression won’t fade away on its own. Even if you do white-knuckle it through your first episode of depression, your chance of another recurrence is more than 50 percent. If you’ve had two episodes, that chance shoots up to 80 percent. Meaning, you’re going to want to deal with this sooner rather than later.

One hallmark of depression is an inability to experience pleasure, which is literally no fun. Losing interest in things you once enjoyed often means that your capacity to function at work and home takes a dive. In fact, depression is one of the leading causes of disability in the U.S., as 7.2% of Americans—17.7 million people—experience Major Depressive Disorder, each year.

Other Types of Depression

We talked about MDD (a.k.a. depression) but there are other types of depression. They include:

  • Persistent Depressive Disorder. This is a chronic form of depression, formerly known as dysthymia. Sometimes people call it “high functioning” or “smiling” depression. While symptoms aren’t as severe as MDD, they last for two years or longer. People with PDD might feel like they’ve always been depressed. (In cases of “double depression,” people experience severe episodes of MDD within their usual state of chronic depression.)
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Depression symptoms start and end seasonally, around the same times every year. Most people get depressed in cold, dark winter, but some people’s mood plummets in summer.
  • Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). Here, depression symptoms are tied to the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, starting about one week before your period and ending just after your period. Though many of the symptoms mirror PMS—irritability, high anxiety, frequent crying—they’re much more severe. They interrupt your ability to work, destroy personal relationships, and can lead to thoughts of self-harm and suicide. This condition was added in 2013 as a form of depression to the DSM-5, the official guide of mental disorders.
  • Peripartum Depression. New mothers with this disorder typically develop symptoms of depression and even psychosis within a few weeks of giving birth. It used to be called postpartum depression and many people still use the term interchangeably. (In some cases, symptoms start during pregnancy; other times, when the baby is several months old—hence the name change.)
  • Perimenopausal Depression. In midlife (specifically, the years leading up to menopause), people experiencing this disorder have typical depressive symptoms plus perimenopause symptoms like hot flashes and night sweats.
  • Substance/Medication-Induced Depressive Disorder. Substance abuse (alcohol, opiates, sedatives, amphetamines, cocaine, hallucinogens, etc.) or taking some medications, like corticosteroids or statins, can trigger the symptoms of depression. If substance use (or withdrawal from using) is causing your symptoms, you may have this version of depression.
  • Disruptive Mood Regulation Disorder. A child with this juvenile disorder is grumpy and bad-tempered most of the time. They have severe, explosive outbursts with parents, teachers, and peers several times a week. Their overreactions are extreme and inconsistent with their developmental level.

 Depression strikes people at a median age of 32, but it’s important to remember that depression can happen to anyone, at any age, of any race, gender, or political affiliation. One out of every six adults will experience depression at some time in their life. Fortunately, depression is treatable. That’s why, at the first hint of symptoms, it’s important to make an appointment with a mental health professional who can help determine whether you have depression, and if so, which type—and most importantly, which treatment is appropriate for you.

What Causes Depression?

You’re not going to like this answer, but no one knows for sure. That said, for the past few decades, the prevailing theory is that depressed people have an imbalance in their brain chemistry—more specifically, low levels of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine, which help regulate mood, sleep, and metabolism. We now know it’s a little more complicated than that.

Certain circumstances put people at a higher risk of depression, including childhood trauma, other types of mental illness and chronic pain conditions, or a family history of depression, but anyone can get depressed.

Scientists informed by decades of research believe that the following factors also up your risk of becoming depressed, but they can’t prove causality. Still, they can play heavily in the development of depression, so it’s important to be aware of them:

  • Genetics. Research shows that having a first-degree relative with depression (a parent, sibling, or child) makes you two-to-three times more likely to have depression tendencies.
  • Traumatic life events from childhood, such as abuse or neglect.
  • Environmental stressors, like a loved one’s death, a messy divorce, or financial problems.
  • Some medical conditions (e.g., underactive thyroid, chronic pain). Per science, the relationship between these physical conditions and depression is bidirectional, so there’s a chicken-or-egg thing going on because they feed each other.
  • Certain medications, including some sedatives and blood pressure pills.
  • Hormonal changes, like those that come with childbirth and menopause.
  • Gut bacteria. There has been a link established between the microbiome and the gut-brain axis, but it’s only just starting to be studied.

Do I Have the Symptoms of Depression?

Wondering whether your feelings qualify for clinical depression? Those with MDD experience five or more of the below symptoms during the same two-week period, and at least one must be depressed mood or loss of pleasure. The symptoms would be distressing or affect daily functioning.

  1. You feel down most of the time.
  2. The things you liked doing no longer give you joy.
  3. Significant weight loss (without dieting) or weight gain or feeling consistently much less hungry or hungrier than usual.
  4. Having a hard time getting to sleep and staying asleep or oversleeping.
  5. A molasses-like slowdown of thought, becoming a couch potato, or spending days in bed. (This should be noticeable to others, not just subjective feelings of restlessness or slothiness.)
  6. So. So. Tired. You’re so exhausted you can’t even.
  7. Feeling worthless a lot of the time, even if you haven’t done anything wrong.
  8. Being super distracted, indecisive, and unable to concentrate.
  9. Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide(with or without a specific plan to actually do it). If you need help for yourself or someone else, please contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (8255).
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Health and Disease, Uncategorized

HWA-LICHEN PLANUS AND LICHEN SCLEROSIS

 

 

Lichen Planus and Lichen Sclerosis: These Conditions May Mimic Yeast Infection or Herpes

Lichen Planus Clinical Presentation: History, Physical Examination ...

There are several gynecologic conditions that share similar symptoms. Vaginal itching, irritation, burning, and lesions or sores are most commonly associated with yeast infections or genital herpes. But when those two are ruled out, there are even more possibilities. For example, two vulvar skin conditions, called lichen planus and lichen sclerosus, can cause similar symptoms.

Lichen Planus: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Risks

 

What Is Lichen Planus?

Genital lichen planus is a dermatological (skin) condition that affects the vulva (outer genital area), vagina, and anus. In women, the condition can lead to scarring and chronic inflammation of the vulva, which may cause sexual dysfunction, according to Drexel Medicine.  Men can also get genital lichen planus, which shows up as pink, shiny, flat-topped papules in the genital area, according to a 2015 report.

This skin condition can also develop on other areas of the body, such as the inside of the mouth, the wrist, the ankles, and the lower back, according to the American Academy of Dermatology. While the cause of lichen planus remains unclear, it is considered to be a chronic autoimmune skin disorder with periods of flare-ups and remission. It may be contagious, with different variables, so it is always good to be cautious.

Lichen planus - Stock Image - C040/2238 - Science Photo Library

What Are the Symptoms of Vulvar Lichen Planus?

According to the American Academy of Dermatology, the following are possible symptoms of lichen planus:

  • Bumps and patches on the skin that itch
  • Soreness, burning, and tenderness
  • Blisters and open sores that may make urination and sexual intercourse painful
  • Pale appearance or white lacy pattern on the vulva
  • Yellowish discharge
  • Fragile and thin vaginal skin, which sometimes causes cracking and bleeding
  • If left untreated, this skin condition can erode the vaginal skin tissues, especially the labia minora (inner vaginal folds).

It is not difficult to understand how some women may mistake these symptoms for genital herpes (the presence of painful lesions) or some other sort of infection (itching, burning, and soreness).

What Is Lichen Sclerosus?

Lichen sclerosus is another chronic, auto-immune-inflammatory skin disease affecting the genital region that can mimic the symptoms of an infection such as a yeast infection or genital herpes. Lichen sclerosus can occur alongside lichen planus or can develop from erosive lichen planus (where the labia minora shrink and fuse to the labia majora).

Science Source - Lichen Sclerosus

What Are the Symptoms of Lichen Sclerosus?

The main symptoms are itching and soreness, according to the NIH. There may be white, shiny patches on the vaginal skin. Some people may have blisters and bleeding in the vaginal area and may notice that their skin tears and bruises easily. Lichen sclerosus can be extremely painful, making sexual intercourse a source of physical distress.

Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions - ScienceDirect

What Are the Risk Factors for Lichen Sclerosus?

As with lichen planus, the cause of lichen sclerosus is unclear, but it may be related to an overactive immune system or hormones, according to the NIH. One study completed in 2008 found that women who have psoriasis may be more susceptible to being diagnosed with lichen sclerosus. It is more common in postmenopausal women as well, according to a report by the Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

However, because of the similarities to other conditions, such as genital herpes, vaginitis, or yeast infections, some women may not realize they have lichen sclerosus or mistake it for other gynecological problems.

If left untreated, lichen sclerosus can progress and cause serious effects. In rare cases, it’s associated with an increased chance of vulvar cancer. About 4 percent of women with lichen sclerosus develop vulvar cancer, according to the American Cancer Society.

a) Lichen sclerosus with dry, atrophic skin, vanishing of the ...

How to Get Treatment for These Symptoms

If you are experiencing itching, burning, soreness, bleeding, fissures, thick white patches of skin, or ulcers or blisters in the vulvar area, you should see your gynecologist. Most doctors will be able to diagnose these conditions by doing a vulvar skin biopsy.

Don’t try to guess at what these symptoms mean or try to self-diagnose. Many women suffer needlessly from lichen planus and lichen sclerosus because they think it is some sort of recurring yeast infection. Although both of these genital skin conditions can be chronic and without a definitive cure, there is treatment that is extremely effective. An early diagnosis and treatment can prevent pain, scarring, and damage to the vulvar skin and tissues.

While these conditions can’t be cured, they can be treated and managed. Cortisone creams have been found to be effective in reducing symptoms. Some people find that over-the-counter antihistamine creams help reduce pain and itching.

 

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Health and Disease, Uncategorized

HWA -FACTS TO KNOW ABOUT THE CORONAVIRUS

 

Facts to Know About the Coronavirus

 

Knowledge is power, so here you go—the key stats and facts that give a clearer picture of the COVID-19 pandemic

Coronavirus.

Young Asian woman wearing a mask against germs.
iStock

 

 

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-People Start to Heal The Moment They Are Heard-

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 Rashid Chotani, M.D.

Dr. Chotani holds appointments as Chief Scientific Officer/VP Medical Affairs at Washington Vascular Specialists & CareLife, Senior Science Advisor at IEM and Professor of Epidemiology at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. He also serves as a Senior Fellow, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies and Adjunct Professor, College of Professional Studies at the George Washington University with a focus on public health emergency and crisis communication.

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Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Bi-polar of Shizophrenic

bipolar

What are signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder and of schizophrenia?

 

To qualify for the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, a person must experience at least one manic episode. Symptoms of mania include

 

elevated, expansive, or irritable mood;

racing thoughts;

pressured speech (rapid, excessive, and frenzied speaking);

decreased need for sleep;

grandiose ideas (for example, false beliefs of superiority or failures);

tangential speech (repeatedly changing topics to topics that are hardly related);

restlessness/increased goal-directed activity; and

impulsivity, poor judgment, or engaging in risky activity (like spending sprees, promiscuity, or excess desire for sex).

While a major depressive episode is not required for the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, depression often alternates with manic episodes and tends to occur more often than mania in many people.

 

Symptoms of schizophrenia may include

 

delusions (beliefs not at all based in reality),

hallucinations (seeing, hearing, feeling, smelling, or tasting something that is not really there),

catatonia,

negative symptoms, like not talking (mutism, low motivation, and movement), and

disorganized speech or behavior.

 

What tests do health care professionals use to diagnose bipolar disorder and schizophrenia?

Since there is no one test that determines that someone has bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, health care professionals diagnose these conditions by gathering medical, family, and mental health information. The mental health professional will also either perform a physical examination or request that the individual’s primary care doctor do so, including lab tests to assess the person’s general health and whether he or she has mental health symptoms that are due to a physical condition.

 

 

What are treatments and medications for bipolar disorder and for schizophrenia?

 

People with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia can expect their mental health professionals to consider several interventions, including medications, psychotherapies, and lifestyle advice. Medication treatment of bipolar disorder tends to address relieving already existing symptoms of the illness and preventing symptoms from returning. For schizophrenia, medications have been found to be effective in treating the positive symptoms (for example, delusions or hallucinations).

 

Antipsychotic medications that treat the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and the manic and mixed symptoms of bipolar disorder include olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel), ziprasidone (Geodon), aripiprazole (Abilify), paliperidone (Invega), asenapine (Saphris), iloperidone (Fanapt), lurasidone (Latuda), and brexpiprazole (Rexulti). Older medications, like haloperidol (Haldol), chlorpromazine (Thorazine), and thioridazine (Mellaril), are more likely to cause muscular side effects, rarely one that can be permanent.

 

Mood stabilizers like lithium (Lithobid) and antiseizure (anticonvulsant) medications like divalproex (Depakote), carbamazepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR), and lamotrigine (Lamictal) treat active manic or mixed symptoms and those symptoms from returning. Antidepressants are the primary medical treatment for the depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder. Antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications like fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), vortioxetine (Trintellix), and vilazodone (Viibryd); serotonergic/adrenergic medications (SNRIs) like venlafaxine (Effexor), duloxetine (Cymbalta), desvenlafaxine (Pristiq), and levomilnacipran (Fetzima), as well as bupropion (Wellbutrin), a dopaminergic antidepressant.

 

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can treat people whose symptoms of bipolar disorder or schizophrenia are severe and have inadequately responded to psychotherapies and a number of medication trials. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can treat resistant depression, as well.

 

Talk therapy (psychotherapy) is an important part of helping individuals living with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia achieve the highest level of functioning possible by improving ways of coping with the illness. Assertive community treatment (ACT) involves members of the treatment team having daily meetings with the schizophrenia sufferer in community settings (for example, at home, work, or otherwise in the community) rather than just in an office or hospital.

 

What is the prognosis of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia?

Bipolar disorder sufferers tend to have mood problems up to 60% of the time but can be helped with psychotherapy and medication. Schizophrenia has a more difficult course, less so with treatment. People with either condition are at risk for developing medical problems, other mental health disorders, taking their own life, or otherwise dying younger.

 

 

 

 

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Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Heart Attacks in Men

heartattackmen

 Heart Attacks in Men

 

Pain, discomfort, and pressure in the chest are the most common symptoms of heart attack in men. These can include a sensation of fullness or squeezing in the chest. These symptoms are sometimes accompanied by pain in one or both arms, the jaw, back, stomach, or neck. While women are more likely than men to experience symptoms other than the characteristic chest pain and pressure, men can also experience other types of symptoms or mistake a heart attack for another condition, such as gastroesophageal reflux. Other signs and symptoms of heart attack include

shortness of breath,

nausea,

vomiting,

fatigue,

lightheadedness,

fainting,

dizziness,

pressure in the upper back, and

a feeling of breaking out in a cold sweat.

Causes of heart attacks in men

 

Heart attacks are caused when there is an inadequate supply of oxygen-carrying blood to the muscle of the heart. A heart attack is medically known as a myocardial infarction. Blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot and/or atherosclerotic plaque (from coronary artery disease) is the most common cause for the interruption in blood flow to the heart muscle.

 

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Pets, Uncategorized

Common Symptoms of Many Pet Disorders

dogsofa

The Common Symptom of Many Pet Disorders

 

Dogs and cats (especially cats) are wired to sleep somewhere in the neighborhood of 10 to 12 hours a day, and require even more shut-eye as they age. This is why it may seem as though every time you lay eyes on your furry companion, he’s sawing logs.

 

Given his need for lots of sleep, it can be difficult to tell when your pet is actually lethargic and not just drowsy-as-usual. That’s why it’s so important to have a good understanding of what constitutes “normal” for your pet — normal behavior, normal eating patterns, normal sleeping patterns, normal poop, normal pee and so on.

 

When you know your dog’s or cat’s “normal” like the back of your hand, you’ll recognize immediately when something is off, such as when he’s more sluggish than usual. Lethargy is a symptom of many disorders that affect pets, including behavioral problems. Some of the most common causes are explained below.

 

5 Common Reasons for Lethargy in Dogs and Cats

  1. Your pet has an underlying illness

 

A decrease in your pet’s activity level can indicate an underlying health problem that needs investigation. This is especially true if there’s also a change in her appetite, elimination habits and/or interaction with family members or other pets in the household. A dog or cat who is sick will often be unusually quiet and sluggish, so if your pet is lethargic for 24 hours or so, it’s time to give your veterinarian’s office a call. Depending on your pet’s symptoms, you may be asked to bring her in right away.

 

For example, lethargy accompanied by persistent vomiting or bloody vomit, stool or urine is cause for immediate concern. A pet’s refusal to eat is another red flag. The sooner you get your pet diagnosed and begin treatment the better her chances for a full recovery.

  1. Your pet has ingested a poison

 

This frightening scenario can occur both outdoors, especially during the warmer months of the year, and indoors if your pet happens to eat the wrong people food (e.g., chocolate or anything sweetened with xylitol), gets into a bottle of NSAIDs or samples a toxic houseplant.

 

If your dog or cat suddenly grows lethargic or has other symptoms of toxicity (e.g., vomiting) and you know or suspect he’s eaten something potentially poisonous, get him to your veterinarian or the nearest emergency animal hospital immediately.

 

  1. Your pet is on a new medication

 

If your veterinarian has put your dog or cat on a new or different medication and she suddenly seems lethargic, the drug is probably the cause. All medications have short- and long-term side effects that can range from mild to life-threatening. If you see any change in your pet’s behavior after starting a new medication, report it to your veterinarian immediately.

 

I also recommend finding a holistic or integrative vet who may be able to suggest safer, less toxic remedies, especially if your dog or cat is taking a particularly toxic drug (e.g., prednisone) or long-term medication for a chronic condition.

 

  1. Your pet is newly adopted

 

Dogs and (especially) cats who are anxious or frightened can appear lethargic, so if you just brought your pet home, he’ll need some time to adjust to his new environment and family. He could be acting sluggish simply because he’s in unfamiliar territory and a bit overwhelmed.

 

Give your pet lots of positive TLC and avoid overstimulation in his first few weeks with you. If he’s otherwise healthy, his activity level will naturally increase as he learns to trust you and gets comfortable in his new surroundings.

  1. Your pet has lost a friend

 

When two pets are closely bonded and one of them dies, the surviving dog or cat may experience what experts refer to as a “distress reaction” that is similar in many ways to human grief.

 

In addition to lethargy, some of the signs include changes in sleep patterns; changes in eating habits; lack of interest in normal activities; reluctance to be in a room or home alone, or away from human family members; and wandering the house, searching for their lost friend.

 

If you suspect your animal companion is mourning the death of another pet, I recommend reading “10 Tips for Helping Your Surviving Pet Deal with a Loss.”

 

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Health and Disease, Lifestyle, Uncategorized

Treacher Collins Syndrome

treacher

What is Treacher Collins syndrome?

Treacher Collins is a condition that affects the development of bones and other tissues in the face.

 

 

What are the signs and symptoms of Treacher Collins syndrome?

The signs and symptoms of this disorder vary greatly, ranging from almost unnoticeable to severe. Most individuals have:

 

underdeveloped facial bones,

particularly the cheek bones, and

A very small jaw and chin (micrognathia).

 

Some people with this condition are also born with an opening in the roof of the mouth called a cleft palate. In severe cases, underdevelopment of the facial bones may restrict an affected infant’s airway, causing potentially life-threatening respiratory problems.

 

 

What are the characteristics of Treacher Collins syndrome?

 

People with TCS often have eyes that slant downward, sparse eyelashes, and a notch in the lower eyelids called an eyelid coloboma.

Some individuals have additional eye abnormalities that can lead to vision loss.

It also characterized by absent, small, or unusually formed ears.

Hearing loss occurs in about half of all individuals with the problem; hearing loss is caused by defects of the three small bones in the middle ear, which transmit sound, or by underdevelopment of the ear canal.

People with Treacher Collins usually have normal intelligence.

 

How common is this syndrome?

Treacher Collins affects an estimated 1 in 50,000 people.

 

How do you get Treacher Collins (Causes)?

When Treacher Collins results from mutations in the TCOF1 or POLR1D gene, it is considered an autosomal dominant condition, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. About 60 percent of these cases result from new mutations in the gene and occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. In the remaining autosomal dominant cases, a person with TCS inherits the altered gene from an affected parent.

 

When TCS is caused by mutations in the POLR1C gene, the condition has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Autosomal recessive inheritance means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

 

 

What genes are related to this syndrome?

 

Mutations in the TCOF1, POLR1C, or POLR1D gene can cause Treacher Collins. TCOF1 gene mutations are the most common cause of the disorder, accounting for 81 to 93 percent of all cases. POLR1C and POLR1D gene mutations cause an additional 2 percent of cases. In individuals without an identified mutation in one of these genes, the genetic cause of the condition is unknown.

 

The proteins produced from the TCOF1, POLR1C, and POLR1D genes all appear to play important roles in the early development of bones and other tissues of the face. These proteins are involved in the production of a molecule called ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a chemical cousin of DNA. Ribosomal RNA helps assemble protein building blocks (amino acids) into new proteins, which is essential for the normal functioning and survival of cells. Mutations in the TCOF1, POLR1C, or POLR1D gene reduce the production of rRNA. Researchers speculate that a decrease in the amount of rRNA may trigger the self-destruction (apoptosis) of certain cells involved in the development of facial bones and tissues. The abnormal cell death could lead to the specific problems with facial development found in TCS. However, it is unclear why the effects of a reduction in rRNA are limited to facial development.

 

What are the treatment and management guidelines for this syndrome?

There is currently no cure for TCS. Treatment is tailored to the specific needs of each child or adult. Ideally, treatment is managed by a multidisciplinary team of craniofacial specialists.

 

Newborns may need special positioning or tracheostomy to manage the airway. Hearing loss may be treated with bone conduction amplification, speech therapy, and/or educational intervention.

 

In many cases, craniofacial reconstruction is needed. Surgery may be performed to repair cleft palate, to reconstruct the jaw, or to repair other bones in the skull. The specific surgical procedures used and the age when surgery is performed depends on the severity of the abnormalities, overall health and personal preference.

There are some possible treatments that are being investigated. Researchers are looking for ways to inhibit a protein called p53, which helps the body to kill off unwanted cells. In people with TCS, p53 is abnormally activated, leading to the loss of specific cells and ultimately causing features of TCS. It has been proposed that inhibiting the production of p53 (or blocking its activation) may help to treat affected people. However, more research is needed to determine if this type of treatment is effective and safe.

 

Researchers are also studying the use of stems cells found in fat tissue to be used alongside surgery in people with TCS and other craniofacial disorders. Early studies have shown that surgical outcomes may be improved using these stem cells to help stimulate the regrowth of affected areas. However, this therapy is still experimental and controversial.

 

 

What is the prognosis and life expectancy for a person with Treacher Collins syndrome?

Usually, people with TCS grow to become functioning adults with normal intelligence. With proper management, life expectancy is approximatelythe same as in the general population. In some cases, the prognosis depends on the specific symptoms and severity in the affected person. For example, very severe cases of TCS can cause perinatal death because of a compromised airway.

 

What other names do people use for Treacher Collins syndrome?

Other names for TCS include:

 

Franceschetti-Zwahlen-Klein syndrome

Mandibulofacial dysostosis (MFD1)

Treacher Collins-Franceschetti syndrome

zygoauromandibular dysplasia

 

 

If you have any questions or concerns regarding this article, please give us a call and we will help you with this and all your healthcare concerns.

 

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Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms and Signs

pancreaticcancer

Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms & Signs

 

Pancreatic Cancer typically does not cause symptoms until it has grown, so it is most frequently diagnosed in advanced stages rather than early in the course of the disease. In some cases, jaundice (a yellowish discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes) without pain can be an early sign of pancreatic cancer. Other symptoms and signs that can occur with more advanced disease are

 

nausea,

vomiting,

weight loss,

itching skin, and

decreased or loss of appetite.

Pale stools, upper abdominal pain that radiates to the back, back pain, abdominal pain, dark urine, abdominal bloating, diarrhea, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck can be present as well. In some cases, a new onset of diabetes may be a sign of pancreatic cancer, but the vast majority of cases of diabetes are not related to cancer.

 

Causes of pancreatic cancer

 

The exact cause of pancreatic cancer is generally unknown.

 

Rarely, there can be familial or hereditary genetic syndromes that run in families and put individuals at higher risk, such as mutations of the genes BRCA-2 and, to a lesser extent, BRCA-1.

 

Other causes are actually various modes of medication used for diabetes.   Canagliflozin(Invokana), Dapagliflozin (Farxiga) and Empagliflozin (Jardiance) are three medications that were released to the public without a correct length of time to study them, and they are showing to have some positive results for inducing pancreatic cancer.

 

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