Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Bi-polar of Shizophrenic

bipolar

What are signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder and of schizophrenia?

 

To qualify for the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, a person must experience at least one manic episode. Symptoms of mania include

 

elevated, expansive, or irritable mood;

racing thoughts;

pressured speech (rapid, excessive, and frenzied speaking);

decreased need for sleep;

grandiose ideas (for example, false beliefs of superiority or failures);

tangential speech (repeatedly changing topics to topics that are hardly related);

restlessness/increased goal-directed activity; and

impulsivity, poor judgment, or engaging in risky activity (like spending sprees, promiscuity, or excess desire for sex).

While a major depressive episode is not required for the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, depression often alternates with manic episodes and tends to occur more often than mania in many people.

 

Symptoms of schizophrenia may include

 

delusions (beliefs not at all based in reality),

hallucinations (seeing, hearing, feeling, smelling, or tasting something that is not really there),

catatonia,

negative symptoms, like not talking (mutism, low motivation, and movement), and

disorganized speech or behavior.

 

What tests do health care professionals use to diagnose bipolar disorder and schizophrenia?

Since there is no one test that determines that someone has bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, health care professionals diagnose these conditions by gathering medical, family, and mental health information. The mental health professional will also either perform a physical examination or request that the individual’s primary care doctor do so, including lab tests to assess the person’s general health and whether he or she has mental health symptoms that are due to a physical condition.

 

 

What are treatments and medications for bipolar disorder and for schizophrenia?

 

People with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia can expect their mental health professionals to consider several interventions, including medications, psychotherapies, and lifestyle advice. Medication treatment of bipolar disorder tends to address relieving already existing symptoms of the illness and preventing symptoms from returning. For schizophrenia, medications have been found to be effective in treating the positive symptoms (for example, delusions or hallucinations).

 

Antipsychotic medications that treat the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and the manic and mixed symptoms of bipolar disorder include olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel), ziprasidone (Geodon), aripiprazole (Abilify), paliperidone (Invega), asenapine (Saphris), iloperidone (Fanapt), lurasidone (Latuda), and brexpiprazole (Rexulti). Older medications, like haloperidol (Haldol), chlorpromazine (Thorazine), and thioridazine (Mellaril), are more likely to cause muscular side effects, rarely one that can be permanent.

 

Mood stabilizers like lithium (Lithobid) and antiseizure (anticonvulsant) medications like divalproex (Depakote), carbamazepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR), and lamotrigine (Lamictal) treat active manic or mixed symptoms and those symptoms from returning. Antidepressants are the primary medical treatment for the depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder. Antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications like fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), vortioxetine (Trintellix), and vilazodone (Viibryd); serotonergic/adrenergic medications (SNRIs) like venlafaxine (Effexor), duloxetine (Cymbalta), desvenlafaxine (Pristiq), and levomilnacipran (Fetzima), as well as bupropion (Wellbutrin), a dopaminergic antidepressant.

 

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can treat people whose symptoms of bipolar disorder or schizophrenia are severe and have inadequately responded to psychotherapies and a number of medication trials. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can treat resistant depression, as well.

 

Talk therapy (psychotherapy) is an important part of helping individuals living with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia achieve the highest level of functioning possible by improving ways of coping with the illness. Assertive community treatment (ACT) involves members of the treatment team having daily meetings with the schizophrenia sufferer in community settings (for example, at home, work, or otherwise in the community) rather than just in an office or hospital.

 

What is the prognosis of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia?

Bipolar disorder sufferers tend to have mood problems up to 60% of the time but can be helped with psychotherapy and medication. Schizophrenia has a more difficult course, less so with treatment. People with either condition are at risk for developing medical problems, other mental health disorders, taking their own life, or otherwise dying younger.

 

 

 

 

Health and Wellness Associates

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Dr M Williams PhD Psych

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Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Heart Attacks in Men

heartattackmen

 Heart Attacks in Men

 

Pain, discomfort, and pressure in the chest are the most common symptoms of heart attack in men. These can include a sensation of fullness or squeezing in the chest. These symptoms are sometimes accompanied by pain in one or both arms, the jaw, back, stomach, or neck. While women are more likely than men to experience symptoms other than the characteristic chest pain and pressure, men can also experience other types of symptoms or mistake a heart attack for another condition, such as gastroesophageal reflux. Other signs and symptoms of heart attack include

shortness of breath,

nausea,

vomiting,

fatigue,

lightheadedness,

fainting,

dizziness,

pressure in the upper back, and

a feeling of breaking out in a cold sweat.

Causes of heart attacks in men

 

Heart attacks are caused when there is an inadequate supply of oxygen-carrying blood to the muscle of the heart. A heart attack is medically known as a myocardial infarction. Blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot and/or atherosclerotic plaque (from coronary artery disease) is the most common cause for the interruption in blood flow to the heart muscle.

 

Health and Wellness Associates

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Dr J Jaranson

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Pets, Uncategorized

Common Symptoms of Many Pet Disorders

dogsofa

The Common Symptom of Many Pet Disorders

 

Dogs and cats (especially cats) are wired to sleep somewhere in the neighborhood of 10 to 12 hours a day, and require even more shut-eye as they age. This is why it may seem as though every time you lay eyes on your furry companion, he’s sawing logs.

 

Given his need for lots of sleep, it can be difficult to tell when your pet is actually lethargic and not just drowsy-as-usual. That’s why it’s so important to have a good understanding of what constitutes “normal” for your pet — normal behavior, normal eating patterns, normal sleeping patterns, normal poop, normal pee and so on.

 

When you know your dog’s or cat’s “normal” like the back of your hand, you’ll recognize immediately when something is off, such as when he’s more sluggish than usual. Lethargy is a symptom of many disorders that affect pets, including behavioral problems. Some of the most common causes are explained below.

 

5 Common Reasons for Lethargy in Dogs and Cats

  1. Your pet has an underlying illness

 

A decrease in your pet’s activity level can indicate an underlying health problem that needs investigation. This is especially true if there’s also a change in her appetite, elimination habits and/or interaction with family members or other pets in the household. A dog or cat who is sick will often be unusually quiet and sluggish, so if your pet is lethargic for 24 hours or so, it’s time to give your veterinarian’s office a call. Depending on your pet’s symptoms, you may be asked to bring her in right away.

 

For example, lethargy accompanied by persistent vomiting or bloody vomit, stool or urine is cause for immediate concern. A pet’s refusal to eat is another red flag. The sooner you get your pet diagnosed and begin treatment the better her chances for a full recovery.

  1. Your pet has ingested a poison

 

This frightening scenario can occur both outdoors, especially during the warmer months of the year, and indoors if your pet happens to eat the wrong people food (e.g., chocolate or anything sweetened with xylitol), gets into a bottle of NSAIDs or samples a toxic houseplant.

 

If your dog or cat suddenly grows lethargic or has other symptoms of toxicity (e.g., vomiting) and you know or suspect he’s eaten something potentially poisonous, get him to your veterinarian or the nearest emergency animal hospital immediately.

 

  1. Your pet is on a new medication

 

If your veterinarian has put your dog or cat on a new or different medication and she suddenly seems lethargic, the drug is probably the cause. All medications have short- and long-term side effects that can range from mild to life-threatening. If you see any change in your pet’s behavior after starting a new medication, report it to your veterinarian immediately.

 

I also recommend finding a holistic or integrative vet who may be able to suggest safer, less toxic remedies, especially if your dog or cat is taking a particularly toxic drug (e.g., prednisone) or long-term medication for a chronic condition.

 

  1. Your pet is newly adopted

 

Dogs and (especially) cats who are anxious or frightened can appear lethargic, so if you just brought your pet home, he’ll need some time to adjust to his new environment and family. He could be acting sluggish simply because he’s in unfamiliar territory and a bit overwhelmed.

 

Give your pet lots of positive TLC and avoid overstimulation in his first few weeks with you. If he’s otherwise healthy, his activity level will naturally increase as he learns to trust you and gets comfortable in his new surroundings.

  1. Your pet has lost a friend

 

When two pets are closely bonded and one of them dies, the surviving dog or cat may experience what experts refer to as a “distress reaction” that is similar in many ways to human grief.

 

In addition to lethargy, some of the signs include changes in sleep patterns; changes in eating habits; lack of interest in normal activities; reluctance to be in a room or home alone, or away from human family members; and wandering the house, searching for their lost friend.

 

If you suspect your animal companion is mourning the death of another pet, I recommend reading “10 Tips for Helping Your Surviving Pet Deal with a Loss.”

 

Health and Wellness Associates

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Dr. Becker

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Health and Disease, Lifestyle, Uncategorized

Treacher Collins Syndrome

treacher

What is Treacher Collins syndrome?

Treacher Collins is a condition that affects the development of bones and other tissues in the face.

 

 

What are the signs and symptoms of Treacher Collins syndrome?

The signs and symptoms of this disorder vary greatly, ranging from almost unnoticeable to severe. Most individuals have:

 

underdeveloped facial bones,

particularly the cheek bones, and

A very small jaw and chin (micrognathia).

 

Some people with this condition are also born with an opening in the roof of the mouth called a cleft palate. In severe cases, underdevelopment of the facial bones may restrict an affected infant’s airway, causing potentially life-threatening respiratory problems.

 

 

What are the characteristics of Treacher Collins syndrome?

 

People with TCS often have eyes that slant downward, sparse eyelashes, and a notch in the lower eyelids called an eyelid coloboma.

Some individuals have additional eye abnormalities that can lead to vision loss.

It also characterized by absent, small, or unusually formed ears.

Hearing loss occurs in about half of all individuals with the problem; hearing loss is caused by defects of the three small bones in the middle ear, which transmit sound, or by underdevelopment of the ear canal.

People with Treacher Collins usually have normal intelligence.

 

How common is this syndrome?

Treacher Collins affects an estimated 1 in 50,000 people.

 

How do you get Treacher Collins (Causes)?

When Treacher Collins results from mutations in the TCOF1 or POLR1D gene, it is considered an autosomal dominant condition, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. About 60 percent of these cases result from new mutations in the gene and occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. In the remaining autosomal dominant cases, a person with TCS inherits the altered gene from an affected parent.

 

When TCS is caused by mutations in the POLR1C gene, the condition has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Autosomal recessive inheritance means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

 

 

What genes are related to this syndrome?

 

Mutations in the TCOF1, POLR1C, or POLR1D gene can cause Treacher Collins. TCOF1 gene mutations are the most common cause of the disorder, accounting for 81 to 93 percent of all cases. POLR1C and POLR1D gene mutations cause an additional 2 percent of cases. In individuals without an identified mutation in one of these genes, the genetic cause of the condition is unknown.

 

The proteins produced from the TCOF1, POLR1C, and POLR1D genes all appear to play important roles in the early development of bones and other tissues of the face. These proteins are involved in the production of a molecule called ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a chemical cousin of DNA. Ribosomal RNA helps assemble protein building blocks (amino acids) into new proteins, which is essential for the normal functioning and survival of cells. Mutations in the TCOF1, POLR1C, or POLR1D gene reduce the production of rRNA. Researchers speculate that a decrease in the amount of rRNA may trigger the self-destruction (apoptosis) of certain cells involved in the development of facial bones and tissues. The abnormal cell death could lead to the specific problems with facial development found in TCS. However, it is unclear why the effects of a reduction in rRNA are limited to facial development.

 

What are the treatment and management guidelines for this syndrome?

There is currently no cure for TCS. Treatment is tailored to the specific needs of each child or adult. Ideally, treatment is managed by a multidisciplinary team of craniofacial specialists.

 

Newborns may need special positioning or tracheostomy to manage the airway. Hearing loss may be treated with bone conduction amplification, speech therapy, and/or educational intervention.

 

In many cases, craniofacial reconstruction is needed. Surgery may be performed to repair cleft palate, to reconstruct the jaw, or to repair other bones in the skull. The specific surgical procedures used and the age when surgery is performed depends on the severity of the abnormalities, overall health and personal preference.

There are some possible treatments that are being investigated. Researchers are looking for ways to inhibit a protein called p53, which helps the body to kill off unwanted cells. In people with TCS, p53 is abnormally activated, leading to the loss of specific cells and ultimately causing features of TCS. It has been proposed that inhibiting the production of p53 (or blocking its activation) may help to treat affected people. However, more research is needed to determine if this type of treatment is effective and safe.

 

Researchers are also studying the use of stems cells found in fat tissue to be used alongside surgery in people with TCS and other craniofacial disorders. Early studies have shown that surgical outcomes may be improved using these stem cells to help stimulate the regrowth of affected areas. However, this therapy is still experimental and controversial.

 

 

What is the prognosis and life expectancy for a person with Treacher Collins syndrome?

Usually, people with TCS grow to become functioning adults with normal intelligence. With proper management, life expectancy is approximatelythe same as in the general population. In some cases, the prognosis depends on the specific symptoms and severity in the affected person. For example, very severe cases of TCS can cause perinatal death because of a compromised airway.

 

What other names do people use for Treacher Collins syndrome?

Other names for TCS include:

 

Franceschetti-Zwahlen-Klein syndrome

Mandibulofacial dysostosis (MFD1)

Treacher Collins-Franceschetti syndrome

zygoauromandibular dysplasia

 

 

If you have any questions or concerns regarding this article, please give us a call and we will help you with this and all your healthcare concerns.

 

Health and Wellness Associates

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Dr J Jaranson

312-972-WELL

 

HealthWellnessAssociates@gmail.com

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Health and Disease, Uncategorized

Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms and Signs

pancreaticcancer

Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms & Signs

 

Pancreatic Cancer typically does not cause symptoms until it has grown, so it is most frequently diagnosed in advanced stages rather than early in the course of the disease. In some cases, jaundice (a yellowish discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes) without pain can be an early sign of pancreatic cancer. Other symptoms and signs that can occur with more advanced disease are

 

nausea,

vomiting,

weight loss,

itching skin, and

decreased or loss of appetite.

Pale stools, upper abdominal pain that radiates to the back, back pain, abdominal pain, dark urine, abdominal bloating, diarrhea, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck can be present as well. In some cases, a new onset of diabetes may be a sign of pancreatic cancer, but the vast majority of cases of diabetes are not related to cancer.

 

Causes of pancreatic cancer

 

The exact cause of pancreatic cancer is generally unknown.

 

Rarely, there can be familial or hereditary genetic syndromes that run in families and put individuals at higher risk, such as mutations of the genes BRCA-2 and, to a lesser extent, BRCA-1.

 

Other causes are actually various modes of medication used for diabetes.   Canagliflozin(Invokana), Dapagliflozin (Farxiga) and Empagliflozin (Jardiance) are three medications that were released to the public without a correct length of time to study them, and they are showing to have some positive results for inducing pancreatic cancer.

 

Health and Wellness Associates

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Dr J Jaranson

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